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Is used in the context of climate finance in which it refers to public finance (e.g. from international finance institutions) that is used to encourage private investors to back the same project. This can be in the form of loans, risk guarantees and insurance or private equity. This is also intended to reduce the perceived risk for the private sector. Financial institutions apply the terminology ‘leveraging’ to understand how their core contributions (for example, money provided by donor governments to a multilateral development bank) can be invested in capital markets to create an internal multiplier effect.

Source: Center for Global Development


refers to the negative effects of climate change that people have not been able to cope with or adapt to. Loss and damage emanating from climate change impacts can be both economic and non-economic in nature. The concept was introduced in UNFCCC in the 13th Session of the COP in Bali, Indonesia and later, in Cancun Adaptation Framework in 2010.

Source: UNFCCC


The concept of low carbon development has its roots in the UNFCCC adopted in Rio in 1992. In the context of this convention, low carbon development is now generally expressed using the term low-emission development strategies (LEDS – also known as low-carbon development strategies, or low-carbon growth plans). Though no formally agreed definition exists, LEDS are generally used to describe forward-looking national economic development plans or strategies that encompass low-emission and/or climate-resilient economic growth.

Source: OECD