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CARBON BUDGET

Is the amount of CO2 the world can emit while still having a likely chance of limiting warming to the 2°C target. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report, issued in 2014, estimates the world has burned through two-thirds of the budget, and WRI calculates we could spend it entirely in two decades if emissions continue unabated.

Source: World Resources Institute (WRI)
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CARBON FOOTPRINT

The amount of greenhouse gases and specifically carbon dioxide emitted by something (such as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport) during a given period.

Source: Merriam Webster
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CARBON MARKET

A market that is created from the trading of carbon emission allowances to encourage or help countries and companies to limit their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This is also known as emissions or carbon trading.

Source: Financial Times Lexington
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CARBON NEUTRALITY

Means annual zero net anthropogenic (human caused or influenced) CO2 emissions by a certain date. Every ton of anthropogenic CO2 emitted is compensated with an equivalent amount of CO2 removed (e.g. via carbon sequestration).

Source: World Resources Institute (WRI)
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CARBON OFFSETTING

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by purchasing credits through emissions reduction projects or carbon trading schemes.

Source: David Suzuki Foundation
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CARBON SEQUESTRATION

The long-term storage of carbon in plants, soils, geologic formations, and the ocean. Carbon sequestration occurs both naturally and as a result of anthropogenic activities and typically refers to the storage of carbon that has the immediate potential to become carbon dioxide gas. In response to growing concerns about climate change resulting from increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, considerable interest has been drawn to the possibility of increasing the rate of carbon sequestration through changes in land use and forestry and also through geoengineering techniques such as carbon capture and storage.

Source: Britannica
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CARBON TAX

Directly sets a price on carbon by defining a tax rate on greenhouse gas emissions or – more commonly – on the carbon content of fossil fuels.

Source: World Bank
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CERTIFIED EMISSION REDUCTION (CER)

Are carbon credits which are backed by the UN and issued by the CDM Executive Board for emission reductions achieved by CDM projects.  (One CER is equal to one metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). It can be traded in a voluntary carbon market and used by developed countries to meet emission reduction commitments.

Source: Act Commodities
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CLIMATE FUNDS

Are resources at multilateral, bilateral and/or national levels with the purpose to address climate change. Several climate change dedicated funds such as GCF, Least Development Countries Fund 7 Climate Finance Glossary (LDCF), Adaptation Fund, and Climate Investment Funds have been established to support poor and vulnerable developing countries. OECD publishes Climate Fund inventories and reports to the G20 Climate Finance Study Group on a regular basis.

Source: OECD
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CLIMATE PUBLIC EXPENDITURE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW (CPEIR)

Is a methodological tool to analyse, how climate change related expenditure is being integrated into national and sub-national budgetary processes. It has three key pillars: Policy Analysis, Institutional Analysis and Climate Public Expenditure Analysis. It supports to identify and track climate related expenditure in the national budget.

Source: CFADE
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CO-FINANCING MECHANISM

Is a practice in which multiple agencies finance the same project. Climate Co-Finance is the amount of financial resources contributed by the external entities along with climate finance invested by Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs). The financial resource providers include, among others, government or government-affiliated institution as well as the private sector, which are in the form of trust funds and international climate funds managed by MDBs. Co-financing is an essential component of the Green Climate Fund.

Source: Brookings Institution
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COLLABORATIVE CONSUMPTION

A system not based on individual ownership but where consumers share products or services. Collaborative consumption differs from standard commercial consumption in that the cost of purchasing the good or service is not borne by one individual, but instead is divided across a larger group as the purchase price is recouped through renting or exchanging.

Source: Investopedia
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COLLECTIVE IMPACT

Cross-sector coordination to bring about large-scale social change; the concept that the competitiveness of a company and the health of the communities around it are mutually dependent.

Source: FSG
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CONFERENCE OF PARTIES (COP)

The Conference of Parties, known as COP, is the decision-making body responsible for monitoring and reviewing the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Source: UNFCCC
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CONSCIOUS CAPITALISM

Is a philosophy with a central premise that businesses should serve all major stakeholders, including the environment.

Source: Investopedia
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CRADLE TO CRADLE

Using the end use product (‘waste’) for the source of a new product: a circular economy. All products can be designed for continuous recovery and re-utilisation.

Source: Ellen MacArthur Foundation
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CRADLE TO GRAVE

Accounting for the impact of producing a product, from creation to end use. It is a linear flow: ‘take-make-throw away’.

Source: Sustainability Management School
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CROWD FUNDING

The joint effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually online, to support a wide variety of activities including start-up company funding, disaster relief and campaigns. For many social enterprises the traditional funding models no longer exist, so crowd funding is a mechanism to establish or fundraise for a host of social/environmental activities.

Source: Sustainable Business Network
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CROWD SOURCING

Obtaining services, ideas or content by inviting contributions from a large group of people, especially an online community. It’s often used to fundraise start-up companies and charities. See crowd funding, above.

Source: Sustainable Business Network
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